Vitamin - E

It is an anti-sterilitic factor.

Source of Vitamin - E

Animal :-
              Butter etc....

            Lettuce and  other green and leafy vegetables and soyabeen, ,corn ,seed oil etc........

Daily requirements :       15 -20 i.u

Function of Vitamin - E

1. It has anti-oxidative  effect and prevents unwanted oxidation  inside the body.

2. It is essential for normal reproductive life.

3. It prevents muscular dystrophy.

4. It  maintains tissue integrity .

Deficiency syndrome 

 1.R.B.S's resistance to rapture is decreased

2. Sterility occurs both in male and female  i.e. loss of re productivity .

3.Habitual abortion occurs in female.

Monday, July 29, 2013
Posted by Razib smile

Vitamin - D

Vitamin -D1      Calciferol
Vitamin -D2      Ergo - Calcifrerol
Vitamin -D3     Chole -Calciferol

Source of Vitamin -D

               Fish liver oil
               Sea fish  ( Salmon, Tuna, Hering )
               Milk products like butter, cheese etc

              Yeast and food / vegetables irradiated with ultraviolet ray.

 Nature:-            Ultraviolet ray of sunlight converts Ergo-calciferol  and 7-dehydro cholestrerol  into  Ergo-calciferol  and colecalciferol  respectively in the skin.

Daily Requirements :-
                                             400 i.u. for  adult.
                                             600 - 800 i.u in pregnancy  and lactation


Function of Vitamin - D 

1. Vitamin -D regulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorous  from  the intestinal tract.
2.  Vitamin -D  also helps in the calcification  of new bone and development of teeth .

3. Vitamin -D  is necessary  for  the proper growth of bone . This is why it is also know as  anti-ricketic vitamin. 

 Deficiency of Syndrome

 1. Mild deficiency causes insufficient utilization of calcium and phosphorous  in developing cartilage and newly  formed bones and teeth.

2.  In  severe deficiency it causes  ricket in children and osteomalacia  in adult .
                     In ricket , the newly growing bones become abnormal in shape and structure such as  bow legs
, knocky knees , enlargment of the ends of the bones etc.  But in osteo malacia it is marked by increasing softness of the bones so that they become flexible and brittle thus causing deformities.   

Posted by Razib smile

Vitamin - A

About  Vitamin- A :

Vitamin -A  occure in the animal tissue in the from of retinol  but in plant , it is  found as provitamin which is a yellow-red carotinoid  pigment and is converted into vitamin -a in the liver.


Animal  :-  Liver
                 Fish liver oil (cod liver oil, shark liver oil etc )
                 Flesh of the oily fish
                 Milk &
                 Milk products like butter , cheese, ghee etc.

         Plant :-
        Green leafy vegetable like  
                                               pui shak.
                                               Lal shak
                                               Kalmi shak
                 Yellow or red vegetable or fruit like,
                                             Sweet potato 
                                             Ripe papya

Daily Requirements :

                 5000 i.u adult.
                 6000-8000 i.u pregnancy and lactation 

 Function :               

             1.  It is an essential component of  rdopsin  and promotes cyclic resynthesis  of visul purple thus helps in night vision .
             2. It   is essential for growth and  also  maintains  the integrity   and activity of epithelial tissue and gland . 
            3. It is also essential for reproduction. 
           4. It helps in the maintenance of resistance to infection . 
           5. It plays stabilizing role on the normal permeability to lysosome and mitochondria. 

Wednesday, July 24, 2013
Posted by Razib smile


What is Vitamins ?

Vitamin may be defined as organic chemical substance, minute quantity of which is required and essential for the growth, development and maintenance of body . Only a few vitamins are synthesized in human body . As for example : vitamin K is synthesized in the body by intestinal symbiotic bacteria . Other than , vitamin D is synthesized  in the skin by ultraviolet  ray .  

Types of Vitamins :

According  to the solubility ,Vitamin may be classified into ; 

                    1.  Fat soluble vitamins
                    2.  Water soluble vitamins 

Fat soluble vitamins:    
    Fat soluble vitamins  are those which are soluble in fat soluble solvent .They are easily stored within the body  for a long time in  the  liver and subcutaneous tissue. They are  ----
                     a)  Vitamin  A or Retinol
                     b)  Vitamin  D  or Calciferol 
                     c)  Vitamin   E  or Tocopherol 
                     d)  Vitamin  K  or  Anti- haemorrhagic factor. 

Water soluble vitamin  : -
        Water soluble vitamins are those which are soluble in water . They cannot be stored in the body more than 48 to 72 hours . They are..

                   a)  Vitamin B  complex.
                   b)  Vitamin C or Ascorbic acid . 

 pic: Vitamins

Daily Requirements Of different Vitamins : 

Vitamin                                                            Normal                                pregnant  Mother 

Vitamin A                                                       5000 i.u                                  6000- 8000 i.u 

Vitamin  D                                                      400 i.u                                      500  -  800 i.u

Vitamin   E                                                       15 -20 i.u 
                                                                        8-10 mg daily   

Vitamin  K                                 It is  synthesized  within the body according to
                                                  the requirement . But incase of  hemorrhagic 
                                                 disease 5 mg is administered orally or in injection from .  

Vitamin  C                                                       45 mg. 

Vitamin B Complex
 B1   Thiamin                                                   1.2mg                                                      1.6 mg
 B2    Riboflavin                                               1.5mg                                                      1.8 mg
 B3    Pantathonic  acid                                     5-10 mg
 B5    Nicotinic  acid                                         12-18mg 
 B6    Pyridoxin                                                2 mg                                                        2-5 mg
 B12 Cyano cobalomin                                    3mg                                                         4-5 mg 
Niacin                                                             2mg
Biotin                                                             1.2 - 2.4mg
Folic acid                                                       0.4mg

Greater will be the person's size ,greater will be the requirement . In growing children requirement is greater.              
Monday, July 22, 2013
Posted by Razib smile

Gutta Percha ( G.P )

Gutta Percha :  

Gutta percha is -
                         * Elastic type of impression material
                         * Root Canal  Filling material 
                         * Chemically it is  an isomer of rubber 

Source of G.P: 
 Gutta percha  is obtain from the milky juice of various Malaysian Sapotaceous tree especially  Balaquium Gutta  as latex by the process of tapping the juice thus obtained by tapping coagulated by boiling in water 

purification :
It is very important  to purify G.P as completely  as possible other wise it becomes oxidize & distort its property rapidly  The purification is done by washing the crude gutta percha in hot water when the heavier particles  settle to the  bottom and the lighters are float then removed. Then it is heated by steam , while soft it is made into sticks, cones or blocks of the required size &shape.
                                                                pic:- Gutta percha 

Composition of Gutta percha :

1. Gutta 
2. Resinous Substance 20%  - 30%
3.Some elastic material also incorporated with it ,as 
                                                    c) Fatty acid
                                                    d) Addition of the silica ( Powdered)

pic :-Gutta percha 

Properties of Gutta percha:  

 Normally it is hard at hot water or heat it becomes soft & plastic & can be easily moulded. On cooling it again becomes hard. 
 It is insoluble in water & partially soluble in ether , alcohol, or acetone.
 This is completely dissolved in chlorofrom , Carbon tetra chloride or carbon-di sulfide.
 It is radio opaque . 
 It flowers under the stresses of mastication .
 It does not seal the margin of cavity tightly which tends to increase the sensibility of the dentin.
 It is inert & porous in nature .

Friday, July 19, 2013
Posted by Razib smile


About Dental Caries:

Dental caries is a pathogenic process of microbial etiology that result into localized destruction of tooth tissues.
It is a multi-factorial disease involving the following factors:
   1. The host -particularly saliva and teeth.
   ii. The microflora and their substrate.
   iii. Diet
   iv. Time .
so, caries requires a susceptible  host a cariogenic oral flora and a suitable substrate , all of which  must be present together for a sufficient length of time .

                                                                        Dental caries

 Type of Dental Caries

Caries are of different types------
*         Pits and Fissure caries.
**       Smooth surface caries
***     Root caries 
****   Deep dentinal caries
                                                            Dental caries

Prevention of Dental Caries:

We know , dental caries  requires a susceptable host , a cariogenic oral flora and a suitable substrate, all of which must be present together for a sufficient length of time .

             so ,caries prevention is based on the following attempt.....
a)  By increasing the resistance  of the host  (By Fluoride therapy 
                                                                         Occusal sealants
                                                                          Immunization ) 
b) By lowering the number of micro-organisms in contact with the tooth  ( Plaque control by anti plaque agents )
c)  Modification of the substrate by taking non cariogenic  foodstuffs.
d) By reducing the time of the substrate to be in the mouth by limiting  the frequency of intake as well as by increasing the frequency of mouth cleaning.

Saturday, July 13, 2013
Posted by Razib smile

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Ii is a chemical bacterial and mechanical irritation but usually due to bacterial invasion from death pulp tissue.

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